Weaver species

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Yellow-crowned Bishop Euplectes afer

IUCN: Least concern     Discovery: 018

Categories: wetland, pest, black and yellow bishops,
News items about species

Discovery

Yellow-crowned Bishop
Yellow-crowned Bishop,
figure from Brown 1776
Yellow-crowned Bishop
Yellow-crowned Bishop,
figure from Vieillot 1805
Yellow-crowned Bishop map
Yellow-crowned Bishop
distribution, type locality circled

Introduction

The Yellow-crowned Bishop was formally named by Johann Friedrich Gmelin, a German naturalist. Gmelin described many new bird species in a book in 1789 in the style of Linnaeus' publications, giving a brief description in Latin and a synonomy, including a reference to Peter Brown, an English naturalist and illustrator. Gmelin noted the locality for the Yellow-crowned Bishop as Africa.

Peter Brown was the first to write about, and illustrate, the Yellow-crowned Bishop. He called it the Black-bellied Grosbeak and gave a description of the bird. Brown notes that his specimen was in the collection of Thomas Pennant,an English ornithologist. Pennant travelled in Europe but not in Africa, so he would have obtained it from someone else. The bishop would have been brought by ship from Africa to England, where it would have been purchased by Pennant [note: in the species text, Brown misspelled Pennant as Tennant, but acknowledged Thomas Pennant in the Preface].

The type locality was later restricted to Senegal, based on Vieillot 1805 who listed specimens from Senegal and Ethiopia. The Ethiopian specimens are based on a different subspecies of the Yellow-crowned Bishop, and thus cannot be a type locality. Buffon 1778 had noted that James Bruce, a Scottish traveller, mentioned and painted the Yellow-crowned Bishop in Ethiopia.

Scientific citation

Loxia afra Gmelin 1789 Syst. Nat., 1(2), p.857 Africa (Senegal; Grant & Praed, 1944, BBOC, 65, p.10).

Meaning of names

afer (Latin): African, from Africa.

First English name

Black-bellied Grosbeak (Brown 1776).

Alternate names

Golden Bishop, Napoleon Bishop, Taha Bishop.

Collector

Unknown.

Date collected

Before 1776.

Locality collected

Africa = Senegal.

Type specimens

Type specimen not located; the illustration of Brown 1776 serves as a type.

The above is based on Weaver Wednesday 2, a weekly series about the discovery of each weaver species.
This species text first appeared as Weaver Wednesday [135] - Discovery [18]: Yellow-crowned Bishop on 2015-01-14

1. Basic biology

Yellow-crowned Bishop
Yellow-crowned Bishop,
breeding male and female

Identification. The Yellow-crowned Bishop is small with a short tail. The male in breeding plumage is black with golden upperparts other than a black nape band. The width of the nape band and the amount of yellow on the sides of the neck varies in the different subspecies.

Distribution. The Yellow-crowned Bishop has a patchy distribution spread across sub-Saharan Africa. There are three subspecies:

Euplectes afer afer is found in western Africa (light blue on map).

E a strictus is found in Ethiopia (green on map); this race is larger than the nominate, the breeding male has a narrow black band on the hindneck, and the yellow on the side of the neck extends to a point behind the lores.

E a taha is found in southern to eastern Africa (red on map); the breeding male has a prominent black band on the nape, with some yellow feathers on the side of the breast and flanks.

In southern Africa there are many recent records for this species around the edge of its range. In particular, there seems to be a range expansion into the Western Cape. It also often shows local nomadic movements.

There are established populations, mostly due to escaped cagebirds, in the USA and West Indies; and small introduced populations in Portugal and Spain.

Yellow-crowned Bishop
Nest of the Yellow-crowned Bishop

Habitat. The Yellow-crowned Bishop inhabits open grassy valleys, usually at low altitudes, and is generally closely associated with wet areas. It breeds in very wet areas such as swamps or seasonally flooded habitats.

Food. The Yellow-crowned Bishop feeds mainly on small grass seeds. In winter it feeds on a greater variety of grass species, including young maize. Nestlings are fed on insects.

Breeding. Displaying males are attractive as they fluff out the yellow feathers on the back while flying over their territories.

The nest is an oval ball, built of grass strips and lined with grass seedheads. The nest is supported by vertical grass stalks with a side entrance near the top. The nest is built by the male - the female lines the nest. Nests are well hidden in a tuft of grass, sometimes in bushes, or in rushes and sedges. Nests are usually in waterlogged or flooded areas, <1 m above the ground or water surface.

The clutch size is 2-4 (mean 3). Eggs are incubated by the female. The young are initially fed by the female, and later by both sexes.

The above is based on Weaver Wednesday, a weekly series about weaver species.
This species text first appeared as Weaver Wednesday [3]: Yellow-crowned Bishop on 2012-07-04

2. Breeding facts

Pair bond
Polygynous
Breeding season
mainly Jul-Oct from W Africa E to W Sudan and in NE DRCongo, Oct in Ethiopia, Jan-Apr in S DRCongo and Angola; records in Jan-Jun in Kenya and Tanzania; in S Africa mainly Dec-Mar, some records as late as May in areas with erratic rainfall
Nest site
attached usually less than 1 m above ground or water to vertical stalks, hidden in tuft of grass or in bushes, rushes and sedges, often in flooded or waterlogged area
Nest building
built by male
Colony size
in small colonies
Clutch size
2-4 eggs, average 3 (South Africa)
Egg colour
white with fine dark spots, often concentrated at thick end
Egg size
average size of 88 eggs 17.9 x 12.8 mm (South Africa)
Incubation
in captivity, incubation by female only, period 12-14 days
Chicks and nestling period
male assisted with feeding of young, nestling period c. 13 days

Breeding information based on Handbook of the Birds of the World, Vol. 15.

3. Photos of Weaver Nests


Vm 24919

Vm 19069

Vm 15781

Vm 22

Thumb-nails of most recent PHOWN records - click on one to see its full record
See all PHOWN records for this species here.

PHOWN (Photos of Weaver Nests) provides valuable info on breeding distribution and colony sizes of weavers.
You can contribute by registering and submitting photos at Virtual Museum webpage.

4. Breeding distribution