Weaver Wednesday  - Discovery : Red-billed Quelea2014-10-15 (582)
Weaver Wednesday (species text)
Red-billed Quelea Quelea quelea
IntroductionLinnaeus 1758 described the quelea with a Latin text, but did not provide a reference. He noted that the species came from India, again an error based on ships from the East Indies picking up bird specimens along the African coast on their return to Europe. In his updated 12th edition of Systema Naturae (Linnaeus 1766), he presented the same plumage description in Latin but corrected the type locality to Africa, and listed Brisson as a reference.
Presumably Linnaeus had access to Brisson's 1760 draft in 1758. Mathurin Jacques Brisson, a French zoologist, wrote his book on birds in several volumes, each page having 2 columns (one in French and one in Latin). For the quelea, Brisson gave the names "Le Moineau à bec rouge du Sénégal" (French) and Passer senegalensis erythrorynchos (Latin). Brisson noted that the quelea originated from Senegal, from where it had been sent to RAF de Reaumur in France by Michel Adanson (the generic name of the Baobab, ie Adansonia, was named after Adanson). Brisson's book has a few engraved illustrations by François-Nicolas Martinet, including one of the quelea.
Edwards 1760 also illustrated the Red-billed Quelea (in colour) in the same year as Brisson. George Edwards called it the Brazilian Sparrow, not being sure if it came from Brazil or Angola. The painting by Edwards was based on a living male in the collection of Mrs Clayton in England, being a different individual to the type specimen.
Linnaeus described many or most of the birds in Edwards, but does not seem to have used the quelea in Edwards (at least not under Linnaeus' genera Loxia or Emberiza).
Scientific citationEmberiza quelea Linnaeus 1758 Syst. Nat., ed. 10, p.177 "India". Senegal, ex Brisson (see Linnaeus, 1776, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, p.310)
Meaning of namesThe origin of the name 'quelea' is unclear and several authors have debated this without there being enough information to come to a definitive conclusion. No African origin of the name has been found despite extensive searches. Linnaeus probably derived quelea from the Medieval name for quail, ie 'qualia' and 'qualea'. The reason for this is also not clear, and the following possibilities have been suggested by different modern authors:
Alternate namesBlackfaced Dioch, Cardinal, Common Dioch, Latham's Weaver-bird, Pink-billed Weaver, Quelea Finch, Quelea Weaver, Red-billed Dioch, Red-billed Weaver, Russ' Weaver, South African Dioch, Sudan Dioch, Uganda Dioch
CollectorMichel Adanson, a French naturalist who undertook a collecting expedition to Senegal.
Date collectedBetween 1748-1754, the time that Adanson spent in Senegal.
Type specimensNo type specimens known to survive, but the painting of Brisson serves as a type.